manufacturers explain to you the mechanism of static electricity. Usually, the generation of static electricity is caused by friction or induction. Friction static electricity is caused by the movement of electric charges generated in the process of contact, friction or separation of two objects. The static electricity left by the friction between conductors is usually weak. This is due to the strong conductivity of the conductor, and the ions generated by the friction will move together and be neutralized quickly during and at the end of the friction process. After the insulator is rubbed, a higher electrostatic voltage may be generated, but the amount of charge is very small. The discharge mechanism of static electricity, 220V city electricity can kill people, but people can't kill people with a voltage of thousands of volts. What is the reason? The voltage across the capacitor satisfies the following formula: Uu003dQ/C. According to this formula, it can be known that when the capacitance is very small, a very small amount of charge will produce a very high voltage. Usually, our bodies and objects around us have very small capacitances. When electric charges are generated, a very small amount of electric charge will also generate a very high voltage. Due to the small amount of charge, the current formed during discharge is very small, the time is very short, the voltage cannot be maintained, and it drops in a very short time. Since the human body is not an insulator, the static charge accumulated in various parts of the body will be collected when there is a discharge path, so it feels that the current is larger and there is a feeling of electric shock. After the human body, metal objects and other conductors generate static electricity, the discharge current will be relatively large. For materials with good insulating properties, one is that the amount of charge generated is very small, on the other hand, the generated charge is difficult to flow. Therefore, although the electrostatic voltage of plastic turnover boxes, packaging foams, chemical fiber carpets, etc. is very high, the discharge energy is actually very small. Static electricity is harmful to electronic components. Static electricity is harmful to LED light pole screens. It is not a unique patent of LED light pole screens. Even commonly used diodes and triodes made of silicon materials will also be threatened. Even buildings, trees, and animals may be damaged by static electricity (lightning is a kind of static electricity, we will not consider it here). So, how does static electricity damage electronic components? I don't want to go too far, just talk about semiconductor devices, and it is limited to diodes, triodes, ICs, and LED floor tiles. The damage of electricity to semiconductor components is ultimately the participation of electric current. Under the action of current, the device is damaged due to heat. If there is current, there must be voltage. However, the semiconductor diode has a PN junction, and the PN junction will have a voltage range that blocks current regardless of whether it is forward or reverse. The forward barrier is low, and the reverse barrier is much higher. In a circuit, where the resistance is large, the voltage is concentrated. But looking at the LED, when the voltage is applied to the LED in the forward direction, when the external voltage is less than the threshold voltage of the diode (the size corresponds to the material forbidden band width), there is no forward current, and the voltage is all applied to the PN junction. When the voltage is applied to the LED in the reverse direction, when the external voltage is less than the reverse breakdown voltage of the LED, the voltage is all applied to the PN junction. At this time, the virtual solder joints of the LED, the bracket, the P area, and the N area , There is no voltage drop! Because there is no current. After the PN junction breaks down, the external voltage will be shared by all the resistors on the circuit. Wherever the resistance is large, which part bears the higher voltage. Why are ICs more afraid of static electricity? Because the area of u200bu200beach element in the IC is very small, the parasitic capacitance of each element is also very small (often circuit functions require very small parasitic capacitance), so a small amount of electrostatic charge will be A high electrostatic voltage is generated, and the power tolerance of each component is usually very small. Therefore, electrostatic discharge can easily damage the IC. However, ordinary discrete components, such as ordinary low-power diodes and low-power transistors, are not very afraid of static electricity, because their chip area is relatively large, and the parasitic capacitance is relatively large, and it is not easy to accumulate high voltage on them in general static determination. Low-power MOS transistors, due to the thin gate oxide layer and small parasitic capacitance, are easily damaged by static electricity. Usually, the three electrodes are short-circuited after the packaging is completed. The problem of static electricity cannot be ignored. Electrostatic discharge requires a conductive circuit, and it does not cause damage if there is static electricity. When only a small amount of leakage problems occur, the problem of accidental electrostatic damage can be considered. If it occurs in a large amount, it is more likely to be a problem of chip contamination or stress.
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