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On the principle of capacitive touch screen and 3D touch technology

by:Toponetech     2021-10-14
Touch technology has changed our lives. Especially the application on smart phones makes it more convenient for people to use electronic products. So today, I will introduce the working principle of capacitive touch screen and 3D touch technology. The capacitive touch screen uses the human body current sensing effect to work. Specifically, when our finger clicks or slides on the metal layer, because the human body is a conductor, the finger and the touch screen surface form a coupling capacitor (two conductors can form a capacitor), so the finger sucks one from the contact point A very small current flows from the electrodes on the four corners of the touch screen, and the current flowing through these four electrodes is proportional to the distance from the finger to the four corners. The gesture recognition controller accurately calculates the proportions of these four currents. The position coordinates of the touch point can be obtained, and this information can be passed to the UI system through the driver program and the corresponding interface transformation can be done. Above we discussed how to detect the coordinates of a point. But how to recognize a gesture? Gesture is the trajectory of finger movement, which is a collection of a series of points. As mentioned earlier, the 'gesture recognition controller' will perform logical analysis on the collection of these points to generate a unified signal, such as: sliding up, down, etc. Give the UI the action of scrolling the screen or switching the UI. Next, let's talk about the 3D Touch technology that Apple launched last year. The so-called 3D Touch is not a new technology. The reason for saying this is that in the PC era and other touch devices, there have long been different interaction behaviors in response to the pressure of the finger on the screen. Of course, Apple is the first technology manufacturer to apply this technology to mobile phones. Then let's take a look at how the mobile phone implements 3D Touch. It can be seen from the above figure that 3D Touch is to add a layer of pressure sensor on the basis of the capacitive touch screen (it seems to be very complicated to implement simply), and then when the phone is in contact with the screen, it not only needs to calculate coordinates, recognize gestures, but also The pressure value of the finger at the time (not in Newtons, but a decimal between 0 and 1) is passed to the UI layer, so that different UIs are displayed according to different pressures. That's it.
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